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Reading Comprehension

Post and Discuss general questions on Reading comprehension

Reading Comprehension

Postby Anantdeep » Thu Feb 28, 2013 8:33 am

Reading Comprehension
Passage 1
Until recently most astronomers believed that the space between the galaxies in our universe was a near perfect vacuum. This orthodox view of the universe is now being challenged by astronomers who believe that a heavy “rain” of gas is falling into many galaxies from the supposedly empty space around them. The gas apparently condenses into a collection of small stars, each a little larger than the planet Jupiter. These stars vastly outnumber the other stars in a given galaxy. The amount of “intergalactic rainfall” into some of these galaxies has been enough to double their mass in the time since they formed. Scientists have begun to suspect that this intergalactic gas is probably a mixture of gases left over from the “big bang” when the galaxies were formed and gas was forced out of galaxies by supernova explosions.
It is well known that when gas is cooled at a constant pressure its volume decreases. Thus, the physicist Fabian reasoned that as intergalactic gas cools, the cooler gas shrinks inward toward the center of the galaxy. Meanwhile its place is taken by hotter intergalactic gas from farther out on the edge of the galaxy, which cools as it is compressed and flows into the galaxy. The net result is continuous flows of gas, starting as hot gases in inter galactic space and ending as a drizzle of cool gas called a “cooling flow,” falling into the central galaxy. A fairly heretical idea in the 1970’s, the cooling-flow theory gained support when Fabian observed a cluster of galaxies in the constellation Peruses and found the central galaxy, NGC 1275, to be a strange-looking object with irregular, thin strands of gas radiating from it. According to previous speculation, these strands were gases that had been blown out by an explosion in the galaxy. Fabian, however, disagreed. Because the strands of gas radiating from NGC 1275 are visible in optical photographs, Fabian suggested that such strands consisted not of gas blown out of the galaxy but of cooling flows of gas streaming inward. He noted that the wavelengths of the radiation emitted by a gas would changes as the gas cooled, so that as the gas flowed into the galaxy and became cooler, it would emit not x-rays, but visible light, like that which was captured in the photographs. Fabian’s hypothesis was supported by Canizares’ determination in 1982 that most of the gas in the Perseus cluster was at a temperature of 80 million degrees Kelvin, whereas the gas immediately surrounding NGC 1275 (the subject of the photographs) was at one-tenth this temperature.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to:
(A) Illustrate a hypothesis about the origin of galaxies
(B) Provide evidence to dispute an accepted theory about the evolution of galaxies
© Summarize the state of and prospects for research in intergalactic astronomy
(D) Report new data on the origins of intergalactic gas
(E) Reconcile opposing views on the formation of intergalactic gas

2. The author uses the phrase “orthodox view of the universe” to refer to the belief that
(A) The space between the galaxies is devoid of matter
(B) The space between galaxies is occupied by stars that cannot be detected by optical photographs
© Galaxies have decreased in mass by half since their formation
(D) Galaxies contain stars, each the size of Jupiter, which form clusters
(E) Galaxies are being penetrated by gas forced out of other galaxies by supernova explosions.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that, if Fabian is correct, gas in the peripheral regions of a galaxy cluster
(A) Streams outward into intergalactic space
(B) is hotter than gas in the central regions of the galaxy
© Is composed primarily of gas left over from the big bang
(D) Results in the creation of unusually large stars
(E) Expands to increase the size of the galaxy

4. The author of the passage probably mentions Canizares’ determination in order to
(A) Clarify an ambiguity in Fabian’s research findings
(B) Illustrate a generalization about the temperature of gas in a galaxy cluster
© Introduce a new argument in support of the orthodox view of galaxies
(D) Provide support for Fabian’s assertions about the Perseus galaxies
(E) Provide an alternate point of view concerning the movement of gas within a galaxy cluster

5. According to the passage, Fabian believes that gas flowing into a central galaxy has which of the following characteristics?
(A) It is one-tenth hotter than it was in the outer regions of the galaxy cluster.
(B) It emits radiation with wavelengths that change as the gas moves toward the center of the galaxy.
© The total amount of radiation emitted diminishes as the gas cools.
(D) It loses 90 percent of its energy as it moves to the center of the galaxy.
(E) It condenses at a rate much slower than the rate of decrease in temperature as the gas flows inward.

6. According to the passage, Fabian’s theory makes use of which of the following principles?
(A) Gas emanating from an explosion will be hotter the more distant it is from the origin.
(B) The wavelength of radiation emitted by a gas as it cools remains constant.
© If pressure remains constant, the volume of a gas will decrease as it is cooled.
(D) The volume of a gas will increase as the pressure increases.
(E) As gas cools, its density decreases.

7. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is true of Fabian’s theory?
(A) It did not receive approval until Canizares’ work was published.
(B) It was not widely accepted in the 1970’s.
© It did not receive support initially because technology was not available to confirm its tenets.
(D) It supports earlier speculation that intergalactic gas was largely the result of explosions outside the galaxy.
(E) It was widely challenged until x-ray evidence of gas temperatures in NGC 1275 had been presented.

Passage 2
Historians sometimes forget that history is conunually being made and experienced before it is studied, interpreted, and read. These latter activities have their own history, of course, which may impinge in unexpected ways on public events. It is difficult to predict when “new pasts” will overturn established historical interpretations and change the course of history. In the fall of 1954, for example, C. Vann Woodward delivered a lecture series at the University of Virginia which challenged the prevailing dogma concerning the history, continuity, and uniformity of racial segregation in the South. He argued that the Jim Crow laws of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries not only codified traditional practice but also were a determined effort to erase the considerable progress made by Black people during and after Reconstruction in the 1870’s.
This revisionist view of Jim Crow legislation grew in Part from the research that Woodward had done for the NAACP legal campaign during its preparation for Brown v. Board of Education. The Supreme Court had issued its ruling in this epochal desegregation case a few months before Woodward’s lectures. The lectures were soon published as a book. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. Ten years later, in a preface to the second revised edition. Woodward confessed with ironic modesty that the first edition “had begun to suffer under some of the handicaps that might be expected in a history of the American Revolution published in 1776.” That was a bit like hearing Thomas Paine apologize for the timing of his pamphlet Common Sense, which had a comparable impact. Although Common Sense also had a mass readership. Paine had intended to reach and inspire: he was not a historian, and thus not concerned with accuracy or the dangers of historical anachronism. Yet, like Paine, Woodward had an unerring sense of the revolutionary moment, and of how historical evidence could undermine the mythological tradition that was crushing the dreams of new social possibilities. Martin Luther King, Jr. testified to the profound effect of The Strange Career of Jim Crow on the civil rights movement by praising the book and quoting it frequently.

8. The “new pasts” can best be described as the
(A) occurrence of events extremely similar to past events
(B) History of the activities of studying, interpreting, and reading new historical writing
© Change in people’s understanding of the past due to more recent historical writing
(D) Overturning of established historical interpretations by politically motivated politicians
(E) Difficulty of predicting when a given historical interpretation will be overturned

9. It can be inferred from the passage that the “prevailling dogma” held that
(A) Jim Crow laws were passed to give legal status to well-established discriminatory practices in the
(B) Jim Crow laws were passed to establish order and uniformity in the discriminatory practices of
different southern states.
© Jim Crow laws were passed to erase the social gains that Black people had achieved since Reconstruction
(D) the continuity of racial segregation in the South was disrupted by passage of Jim Crow laws
(E) the Jim Crow laws of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were passed to reverse the effect of earlier Jim Crow laws

10. Which of the following is the best example of writing that is likely to be subject to the kinds of “handicaps” referred to in?
(A) A history of an auto manufacturing plant written by an employee during an autobuying boom
(B) A critique of a statewide school-desegregation plan written by an elementary school teacher in that state
© A newspaper article assessing the historical importance of a United States President written shortly after the President has taken office
(D) A scientific paper describing the benefits of a certain surgical technique written by the surgeon who developed the technique
(E) Diary entries narrating the events of a battle written by a soldier who participated in the battle

11. The passage suggests that C. Vann Woodward and Thomas Paine were similar in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
(A) Both had works published in the midst of important historical events.
(B) Both wrote works that enjoyed widespread popularity.
© Both exhibited an understanding of the relevance of historical evidence to contemporary issues.
(D) The works of both had a significant effect on events following their publication.
(E) Both were able to set aside worries about historical anachronism in order to reach and inspire.

12. The attitude of the author of the passage toward the work of C. Vann Woodward is best described as one of
(A) Respectful regard
(B) Qualified approbation
© Implied skepticism
(D) Pointed criticism
(E) Fervent advocacy

13. Which of the following best describes the new idea expressed by C. Vann Woodward in his University of Virginia lectures in 1954?
(A) Southern racial segregation was continuous and uniform.
(B) Black people made considerable progress only after Reconstruction.
© Jim Crow legislation was conventional in nature.
(D) Jim Crow laws did not go as far in codifying traditional practice as they might have.
(E) Jim Crow laws did much more than merely reinforce a tradition of segregation

Passage 3

The sensation of pain cannot accurately be described as “located” at the point of an injury, or, for that matter, in any one place in the nerves or brain. Rather, pain signals—and pain relief—are delivered through a highly complex interacting circuitry. When a cell is injured, a rush of prostaglandin’s sensitizes nerve endings at the injury. Prostaglandins are chemicals produced in and released from virtually allmammalian cells when they are injured: these are the only pain signals that do not originate in the nervous system. Aspirin and other similar drugs (such as indomethacin and ibuprofen) keep prostaglandins from being made by interfering with an enzyme known as prostaglandin synthetase, or cyclooxygenase. The drugs’ effectiveness against pain is proportional to their success in blocking this enzyme at the site of injury.From nerve endings at the injury, pain signais move to nerves feeding into the spinal cord. The long, tubular membranes of nerve cells carry electrical impulses. When electrical impulses get to the spinal cord, a pain-signaling chemical known as substance P is released there.Substance P then excites nearby neurons to send impulses to the brain. Local anesthetics such as novocaine and xylocaine work by blocking the electrical transmission along nerves in a particular area. They inhibit the flow of sodium ions through the membranes, making the nerves electrically quiescent; thus no pain signals are sent to the spinal cord or to the brain. Recent discoveries in the study of pain have involved the brain itself—the supervising organ that notices pain signals and that sends messages down to the spinal cord to regulate incoming pain traffic. Endorphins—the brain’s own morphine—are a class of small peptides that help to block pain signals within the brain itself. The presence of endorphins may also help to explain differences in response to pain signals, since individuals seem to differ in their ability to produce endorphins. It now appears that a number of techniques for blocking chronic pain—such as acupuncture and electrical stimulation of the central brain stem—involve the release of endorphins in the brain and spinal cord.

14. The passage is primarily concerned with
(A) analyzing ways that enzymes and other chemicals influence how the body feels pain
(B) describing the presence of endorphins in the brain and discussing ways the body blocks pain within the brain itself.
© describing how pain signals are conveyed in the body and discussing ways in which the pain signals can be blocked
(D) demonstrating that pain can be influenced by acupuncture and electrical stimulation of the central brain stem.
(E) differentiating the kinds of pain that occur at different points in the body’s nervous system.

15. According to the passage, which of the following is one of the first things to occur when cells are injured?
(A) The flow of electrical impulses through nerve cells at the site of the injury is broken.
(B) The production of substance P traveling through nerve cells to the brain increases.
© Endorphins begin to speed up the response of nerve cells at the site of the injury.
(D) A flood of prostaglandins sensitizes nerve endings at the site of the injury.
(E) Nerve cells connected to the spinal cord become electrically quiescent.

16. Of the following, which is most likely attributable to the effect of endorphins as described in the passage?
(A) After an injection of novocaine, a patient has no feeling in the area where the injection was given.
(B) After taking ibuprofen, a person with a headache gets quick relief.
© After receiving a local anesthetic, an injured person reports relief in the anestherized area.
(D) After being given aspirin, a child with a badly scraped elbow feels better.
(E) After acupuncture, a patient with chronic back pain reports that the pain is much less severe.

17. It can be inferred from the passage that if the Prostaglandin synthetase is only partially blocked, which of the following is likely to be true?
(A) Some endorphins will be produced, and some pain signals will be intensified.
(B) Some substance P is likely to be produced, so some pain signals will reach the brain.
© Some sodium ions will be blocked, so some pain signals will not reach the brain.
(D) Some prostaglandins will be produced, but production of substance P will be prevented.
(E) Some peptides in the brain will receive pain signals and begin to regulate incoming pain traffic.
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Re: Reading Comprehension

Postby sadmin » Thu Feb 28, 2013 8:33 am

THANKS Anant -
Site Admin
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Re: Reading Comprehension

Postby Anantdeep » Thu Feb 28, 2013 8:35 am

No need Of thanx Sir.... plz
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Re: Reading Comprehension

Postby Anantdeep » Thu Feb 28, 2013 8:35 am

Passage 1
01.) B
02.) A
03.) B
04.) D
05.) B
06.) C
07.) B
Passage 2
08.) C
09.) D
10.) C
11.) E
12.) B
13.) E
Passage 3
14.) C
15.) D
16.) E
17.) B
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Re: Reading Comprehension

Postby tpsriram » Thu Feb 28, 2013 8:38 am

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Joined: Wed Feb 27, 2013 8:43 am

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